Assessments of teacher quality are currently used for policymaking, employment and tenure decisions, teacher evaluations, merit pay awards, and as data to inform the professional growth of teachers. In many countries, teaching credentials represent the main measure of teacher quality. Charlotte danielson framework for teaching pdf characteristics such as a teacher’s gender, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background may also be characterized as elements of teacher quality as variables impacting student outcomes.
These indicators of teacher quality are relatively straightforward to ascertain, as opposed to the student achievement and teacher observation measures described below. Teacher quality with regard to student achievement—also known as “teacher effectiveness”—is measured in terms of student achievement gains. Student achievement is measured through the use of standardized tests to determine the academic growth of students over time. However, it has been argued that student achievement measures do not necessarily correlate entirely with teacher quality, given that there are various factors that influence a student’s performance which are not under the control of a teacher. This evidence may be collected from in-person or video recorded observations of teaching, pre- and post-observation conferences with teachers, and samples of teachers’ work with students. Assessments of teacher practice may examine teacher quality for a single lesson or over an entire school year. United States in order to align with state and federal accountability requirements.
Many school districts have developed their own rubrics for this purpose, such as the IMPACT system used in the District of Columbia public schools. Other practice-based assessments of teacher quality require teachers themselves to assemble evidence and self-assess their own indicators of teacher quality according to rubrics as part of the process. The way that most current teacher compensation systems are set up is to reward teachers with salary increases for every year of additional experience they gain. The research literature on the predictive power of teacher experience for student achievement gains, however, reveals modest effects of experience limited to the first few years of a teacher’s career. Teacher evaluation is a process used to measure teacher effectiveness based on students learning and success.