1 What is Chemistry all about, anyway? The major concepts and ideas of chemical science, and a look at some of the major currents chemistry textbook online pdf modern Chemistry. We hope this will motivate you get through the less-fun stuff in the first-year course! These five units take you through basic atomic theory and chemical arithmetic, and how chemicals are named.
You will need these skills in amost everything that comes later. How to tell the difference from science. Pseudoscience, junk science and quackery are pervasive in our culture, and all-too-many science courses simply ignore it. A quantum catechism: elementary introduction to quantum theory in the form of a question-and-answer “primer”, emphasizing the concepts with a minimum of mathematics. Everything you need to know in a first-year college course about the principal concepts of quantum theory as applied to the atom, and how this determines the organization of the periodic table.
Opposite charges attract, so why not? It’s surprising how few textbooks explain this properly! A six-part treatment of the gaseous state of matter. Includes numerous examples of application of kinetic molecular theory and a section on real gases. Changes of state: vapor pressure, boiling, and phase maps. Solubility and solubility products, competing equilibria, important solubility systems. These short tutorials summarize the various ways of looking at bond formation without going into too much detail.
Covers the fundamental concepts of acids and bases. Except for some stoichiometry and a discussion on pH, this section is largely qualitative. Acid-base equilibrium calculations are covered in Unit 21. The section on equilibrium calculations contains problem examples illustrating techniques such as iterative and graphical solutions of polynomials, all of which employ the “systematic” method of organizing information. Acid-base chemistry can be extremely confusing, particularly when dealing with weak acids and bases. This set of lessons presents an updated view of the Brønsted-Lowry theory that makes it easy to understand answers to common questions: What’s the fundamental difference between a strong acid and a weak acid? Can acid A neutralize base B?
Why are some salts acidic and others alkaline? What governs the shapes of titration curves? This complete rewrite of the previous 1996 pdf document is now organized into seven lessons covering all aspects of the subject. Considerable effort has been expended to make most of this material accessible to those whose knowledge of thermodynamics is minimal, while still incorporating the proton-free energy concept that makes it easy to answer the questions posed in the preceding paragraph. Much emphasis is placed on the practical aspects of calculations, including how to deal with quadratic equations and how to judge when approximations are appropriate.