Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the cosmetics book by pp sharma pdf deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils.
Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. Peer review under responsibility of Hainan Medical University. Cartoon representation of Botulinum toxin. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and research.
Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. 2-billionths of a gram can cause death to an adult. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so it might seem that injection would then need to be repeated.
United States of America approved abobotulinumtoxinA for injection for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in pediatric patients two years of age and older. AbobotulinumtoxinA is the first and only FDA-approved botulinum toxin for the treatment of pediatric lower limb spasticity. The FDA approves which medical conditions the drug manufacturer may sell the drug for. However, those approved by the FDA to prescribe these drugs may freely prescribe them for any condition they wish, called off-label use. Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. Smoothing of wrinkles is usually visible three days after treatment and is maximally visible two weeks following injection.
The treated muscles gradually regain function, and generally return to their former appearance three to four months after treatment. Muscles can be treated repeatedly to maintain the smoothed appearance. While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles.
Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like syndromes, and allergic reactions. Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations. At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment. When injecting the masseter muscle of the jaw, loss of muscle function can result in a loss or reduction of power to chew solid foods. Side effects from therapeutic use can be much more varied depending on the location of injection and the dose of toxin injected.
In general, side effects from therapeutic use can be more serious than those that arise during cosmetic use. Additionally, side effects which are common in cosmetic use are also common in therapeutic use, including trouble swallowing, muscle weakness, allergic reactions, and flu-like syndromes. In response to the occurrence of these side effects, in 2008 the U. In 2009, the FDA announced that boxed warnings would be added to available botulinum toxin products, warning of their ability to spread from the injection site.
Additionally, the FDA announced name changes to several botulinum toxin products, meant to emphasize that the products are not interchangeable and require different doses for proper use. In conjunction with this, the FDA issued a communication to health care professionals reiterating the new drug names and the approved uses for each. 2009, warning that botulinum toxin products can spread to other parts of the body. However, the toxin can also be introduced through an infected wound.
In all cases, the toxin can then spread, blocking nerves and muscle function. In severe cases, the toxin can block nerves controlling the respiratory system or heart, resulting in death. Other tests, such as brain scan and spinal fluid examination, may help to rule out other causes. If the symptoms of botulism are diagnosed early, various treatments can be administered. In an effort to remove contaminated food which remains in the gut, enemas or induced vomiting may be used.
For wound infections, infected material may be removed surgically. Botulinum antitoxin is available and may be used to prevent the worsening of symptoms, though it will not reverse existing nerve damage. In severe cases, mechanical respiration may be used to support patients suffering from respiratory failure. The nerve damage heals over time, generally over weeks to months. With proper treatment, the case fatality rate for botulinum poisoning can be greatly reduced. Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism.
This antitoxin is effective against all known strains of botulism. Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins required for nerve activation. This stops nerve signaling, leading to paralysis. The toxin itself is released from the bacterium as a single chain, then becomes activated when cleaved by its own proteases. This blockage is slowly reversed as the toxin loses activity and the SNARE proteins are slowly regenerated by the affected cell. While the different toxin types all target members of the SNARE family, different toxin types target different SNARE family members. Following experiments on animals and on himself, he concluded that the toxin acts by interrupting signal transmission in the somatic and autonomic motor systems, without affecting sensory signals or mental functions.