Economic growth models pdf

The economic growth rates of nations is commonly compared using the ratio of the GDP economic growth models pdf population or per-capita income. The “rate of economic growth” refers to the geometric annual rate of growth in GDP between the first and the last year over a period of time.

Implicitly, this growth rate is the trend in the average level of GDP over the period, which implicitly ignores the fluctuations in the GDP around this trend. GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis. 80 percent of the long-term rise in U. Note: There are various measures of productivity. The term used here applies to a broad measure of productivity. Many of the cited references use TFP. Increases in productivity lower the real cost of goods.

Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity arising from technological innovation. The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs. Both of these changes increase output. The increased output included more of the same goods produced previously and new goods and services.

Since that replacement, the great expansion of total power was driven by continuous improvements in energy conversion efficiency. Productivity lowered the cost of most items in terms of work time required to purchase. By the late 19th century both prices and weekly work hours fell because less labor, materials, and energy were required to produce and transport goods. However, real wages rose, allowing workers to improve their diet, buy consumer goods and afford better housing. The building of highway infrastructures also contributed to post World War II growth, as did capital investments in manufacturing and chemical industries. The post World War II economy also benefited from the discovery of vast amounts of oil around the world, particularly in the Middle East. GDP from 1889 to 1957 was due to increased productivity.

Economic growth in the United States slowed down after 1973. 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. The Japanese economic growth has slackened considerably since the late 1980s. Productivity in the United States grew at an increasing rate throughout the 19th century and was most rapid in the early to middle decades of the 20th century. The work week declined considerably over the 19th century. By the 1920s the average work week in the U. Demographic factors may influence growth by changing the employment to population ratio and the labor force participation rate.