Laboratory manual in biochemistry by j jayaraman pdf

This article is about the medical specialty. Unsourced material may be challenged and laboratory manual in biochemistry by j jayaraman pdf. The act of performing surgery may be called a “surgical procedure”, “operation”, or simply “surgery”. In this context, the verb “operate” means to perform surgery.

The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. Surgery usually spans minutes to hours, but it is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a patient’s tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Surgical procedures are commonly categorized by urgency, type of procedure, body system involved, degree of invasiveness, and special instrumentation. Therapeutic surgery treats a previously diagnosed condition.

Excision is the cutting out or removal of only part of an organ, tissue, or other body part from the patient. Removing an organ or body part from a live human or animal for use in transplant is also a type of surgery. By body part: When surgery is performed on one organ system or structure, it may be classed by the organ, organ system or tissue involved. Zeus surgical systems, to control the instrumentation under the direction of the surgeon. Reasons for reoperation include persistent bleeding after surgery, development of or persistence of infection. If these results are satisfactory, the patient signs a consent form and is given a surgical clearance.

Some medical systems have a practice of routinely performing chest x-rays before surgery. The premise behind this practice is that the physician might discover some unknown medical condition which would complicate the surgery, and that upon discovering this with the chest x-ray, the physician would adapt the surgery practice accordingly. Routine x-ray examination is more likely to result in problems like misdiagnosis, overtreatment, or other negative outcomes than it is to result in a benefit to the patient. In the pre-operative holding area, the patient changes out of his or her street clothes and is asked to confirm the details of his or her surgery.

If hair is present at the surgical site, it is clipped off prior to prep application. With local and spinal anesthesia, the surgical site is anesthetized, but the patient can remain conscious or minimally sedated. In contrast, general anesthesia renders the patient unconscious and paralyzed during surgery. An incision is made to access the surgical site.