Inflatable rafts use durable, multi-layered rubberized fabrics. This method was very common up until the middle of the 20th century but is now used only rarely. Pacific Ocean coast of South America from pre-Columbian times until the method statement raft foundation pdf century. Three Arks for a log drive on Pine Creek, in Lycoming or Tioga County, Pennsylvania, USA.
The left ark was for cooking and dining, the middle ark was the sleeping quarters and the right ark was for the horses. The arks were built for just one log drive and then sold for their lumber. The line of the Jersey Shore, Pine Creek and Buffalo Railway can be seen on the eastern shore: the mountainside behind it is nearly bare of trees from clearcutting. Lycoming or Tioga County, Pennsylvania, USA. Children successfully test their raft, in Brixham Harbour, South Devon, England.
The raft is made from wooden poles, rope and blue barrels. Raft carrying visitors to Tom Sawyer Island at Disneyland, about 1960. This page was last edited on 19 July 2017, at 10:51. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Eventually, the solids begin to congeal at the surface of the liquid, forming a ‘raft’, which is caused by the proteins in the egg whites. Once the ‘raft’ begins to form, the heat is reduced, and the consommé is simmered at a lower heat until it reaches the desired flavor, which usually takes anywhere from 45 minutes to over an hour. It is then carefully drawn from the pot and passed again through a filter to ensure its purity, and is then put through a lengthy process where all of the visible fat is skimmed from the surface.
This low-yield is part of what has traditionally given consommé its refined reputation as a dish fit for the higher levels of society and not consumed among the poorer classes, who could not afford such extravagance. Other types of consommé such as a tomato consommé are traditionally served chilled, this keeps the clearness of the consommé. Double consommé is a consommé made to double strength. Another common variation is chilled or jellied consommé. They are served cold and thickened naturally by the gelatin extracted from the bones when the original stock is made. The gelatin gives the consommé a gelatinous texture when set to cool. Additional gelatin may be added during the last part of the clarification process to ensure that it sets properly.
Thus, gelatin filtration works by freezing a gelatin-containing, water-based solution and then allowing it to thaw in a mesh strainer at just above the freezing temperature of water. The gelatin and other solutes concentrate in the unfrozen, associated water, and the gelatin forms a stable network through cross-linking, just as it would in a standard gel. This stable network acts as a filter, trapping large particles of fat or protein, while allowing water and smaller, flavor-active compounds to pass. As the bulk water melts, it passes first through the gelatin network and then through the mesh strainer, into a receiving vessel. Because the temperature is kept just above the freezing point, the bulk water melts slowly and, as it is strained into a separate vessel, it is never in contact with the gelatin for long enough to begin dissolving the gelatin network. The technique is also applicable to a wider range of “stocks”: since no heating is required, heat-sensitive materials, such as fruit juices, can be clarified by first adding a small amount of gelatin, then applying gelatin filtration. Loss of gelatin essential to gelatin filtration results in a consommé with significantly less-rich mouthfeel than a traditional consommé, and also affects the properties of the consommé upon chilling.