Socrates to sartre and beyond a history of philosophy pdf

Views of authenticity in cultural activities vary widely. Sartre considering it authentic and Adorno inauthentic. One of the greatest problems facing such abstract approaches is that the drives people socrates to sartre and beyond a history of philosophy pdf the “needs of one’s inner being” are diffuse, subjective and often culture bound.

In Sartre’s view, this experience, necessary for the state of authenticity, can be so unpleasant that it leads people to inauthentic ways of living. Typically, authenticity is seen as a very general concept, not attached to any particular political or aesthetic ideology. In this manner, authenticity is connected with creativity: the impetus to action must arise from the person in question, and not be externally imposed. Sartre, as has been noted above, focused on inauthentic existence as a way to avoid the paradoxical problem of appearing to provide prescriptions for a mode of living that rejects external dictation. Authenticity, according to Kierkegaard, is reliant on an individual finding authentic faith and becoming true to oneself. Kierkegaard develops the idea that news media and the bourgeois church-Christianity present challenges for an individual in society trying to live authentically. Kierkegaard views the media as supporting a society that does not form its own opinions but utilizes the opinions constructed by the news.

Similarly, he interprets religion as a tradition that is passively accepted by individuals, without the inclusion of authentic thought. The goal of Kierkegaard’s existentialist philosophy is to show that, in order to achieve authenticity, one must face reality and form his own opinions of existence. One must make an active choice to surrender to something that goes beyond comprehension, a leap of faith into the religious. Even if one does not want to put forth the effort of developing his own views, he must do so in the quest for authentic faith. Nietzsche’s view of authenticity is an atheist interpretation of Kierkegaard. He rejects the role of religion in finding authenticity because he believes in finding truth without the use of virtues. Nietzsche rejects the idea of religious virtues due to the lack of questioning by the individual.

One must be a free thinker and theorize views outside of their predilections. For Nietzsche, the secular mentality is a form of weakness and, for authenticity to be achieved, one must truly transcend conventional morality. For an existential journalist, this aversion to, and turning away from, an unquestioning acceptance of norms contributes to the production of an authentic work. There are traditions that exist in media and news outlets that prevent journalists from achieving authenticity. Actively shaping one’s own belief and then acting upon that belief is a laborious task. A journalist that hesitates in writing a story because it is not within the norm is unable to achieve authenticity because of the notion that following the norm is more valuable than being authentic.

As journalists make conscious decisions to write authentically, they are able to contribute more value in their work. He considered behavior of any kind, even that wholly in accord with societal mores, to be authentic if it results from personal understanding and approval of its drives and origins, rather than merely from conformity with the received wisdom of the society. Thus a Frommean authentic may behave consistently in a manner that accords with cultural norms, for the reason that those norms appear on consideration to be appropriate, rather than simply in the interest of conforming with current norms. Fromm thus considers authenticity to be a positive outcome of enlightened and informed motivation rather than a negative outcome of rejection of the expectations of others. Michael Kernis and Brian Goldman defined authenticity as “the unimpeded operation of one’s true or core self in one’s daily enterprise.

While authenticity may be a goal intrinsic to “the good life,” it is often a difficult state to actually achieve, due in part to social pressures to live inauthentically and in part to a person’s own character. It is also described as a revelatory state, where one perceives oneself, other people, and sometimes even things, in a radically new way. Some writers argue that authenticity also requires self-knowledge, and that it alters a person’s relationships with other people. Authenticity also carries with it its own set of moral obligations, which often exist regardless of race, gender and class. English, the process of translating and anthologizing has had a strong impact on the debate. Due to different groups’ and individual’s different experiences, views of authenticity regarding cultural activities vary widely and often differ between groups and individuals.

Western culture generally, which Sartre considered hopelessly inauthentic. Heidegger in his later life associated authenticity with non-technological modes of existence, seeing technology as distorting a more “authentic” relationship with the natural world. Western culture distorted the individual for external reasons. Race relations are seen as another limit on authenticity, as they demand that the self engage with others on the basis of external attributes. The punk subculture classifies members as “poseurs” if they are deemed to not understand or respect the subculture’s values. 1960s in Europe and America was seen by many as a new opportunity to live an authentic existence. Barker, Hugh and Taylor, Yuval.

London and New York: Routledge. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Beyond good and evil: Prelude to a philosophy of the future. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. Semiotic and semantic implications of “authenticity””. Heavy Metal:The Music and its Subculture. Version: 3, in: Docupedia Zeitgeschichte, 12.

This page was last edited on 21 November 2017, at 02:03. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Her father, Charles Schweitzer, was the older brother of Albert Schweitzer’s father, Louis Théophile. Lindbergh was going to be awarded an honorary École degree.