Please forward this error screen to 49. Roxana Moreno established within the scientific literature a set of multimedia instructional design principles that promote effective learning. Many of these theory and principles of education pdf have been “field tested” in everyday learning settings and found to be effective there as well.
The majority of this body of research has been performed using university students given relatively short lessons on technical concepts with which they held low prior knowledge. However, David Roberts has tested the method with students in nine social science disciplines including sociology, politics and business studies. His longitudinal research programme over 3 years established a clear improvement in levels of student engagement and in the development of active learning principles among students exposed to a combination of images and text, over students exposed only to text. A number of other studies have shown these principles to be effective with learners of other ages and with non-technical learning content. Research using learners who have greater prior knowledge in the lesson material sometimes finds results that contradict these design principles. This has led some researchers to put forward the “expertise effect” as an instructional design principle unto itself. The underlying theoretical premise, cognitive load theory, describes the amount of mental effort that is related to performing a task as falling into one of three categories: germane, intrinsic, and extraneous.
The multimedia instructional design principles identified by Mayer, Sweller, Moreno, and their colleagues are largely focused on minimizing extraneous cognitive load and managing intrinsic and germane loads at levels that are appropriate for the learner. In other words, the multi-modal materials reduce the cognitive load imposed on working memory. They repeatedly found that students given multimedia with animation and narration consistently did better on transfer questions than those who learn from animation and text-based materials. These results were then later confirmed by other groups of researchers.
The initial studies of multimedia learning were limited to logical scientific processes that centered on cause-and-effect systems like automobile braking systems, how a bicycle pump works or cloud formation. Simply put, the three most common elements in multimedia presentations are relevant graphics, audio narration, and explanatory text. Combining any two of these three elements works better than using just one or all three. Generally speaking, audio narration leads to better learning than the same words presented as text on the screen. One exception to this is when the learner will be using the information as a reference and will need to look back to it again and again. Basically, the less learners know about the lesson content, the easier it is for them to get distracted by anything shown that is not directly relevant to the lesson. For learners with greater prior knowledge, however, some motivational imagery may increase their interest and learning effectiveness just a bit.
Keep related pieces of information together. Deeper learning occurs when content is broken into small chunks. Break down long lessons into several shorter lessons. Break down long text passages into multiple shorter ones. The use of visual, auditory, or temporal cues to draw attention to critical elements of the lesson. Common techniques include arrows, circles, highlighting or bolding text, and pausing or vocal emphasis in narration. Ending lesson segments after the critical information has been given may also serve as a signalling cue.